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Trimellitic Acid Synthesis Essay

High temperature polymers such as polyimides (PIs) poly(benzoxazole)s (PBOs) are polymers that find an extensive application in aerospace and microelectronic industries owing to their remarkable high thermal stability, mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and excellent insulating ability. PIs and PBOs exhibit poor solubility in most organic solvents, therefore, processing is done in the soluble precursors such as poly(amic acid). Fortunately, in spite of intractable structures, soluble PIs and PBOs have been developed by the introduction of bulky substituents or asymmetric kinked structure. Especially for researchers working in the field of organic optical resins, introduction of alicyclic moieties are getting much attention due to the excellent transparency with reasonable thermal stability. However, such structure can cause serious damages on the thermal properties, compared with the wholly aromatic polymers.

Researchers lead by professor Yuji Shibasaki from Iwate University, Japan, have been studied the cause of the color of PIs and PBOs, and suggested several ideas to diminish the coloring such as introduction of bulky substituents, electro-withdrawing groups into hydroxylamine monomers, decreasing imide contents, and selecting monomers having kinked structure to shorten the conjugation length.  In their last paper, they investigated the colorless poly(amide imide)s (PAI)s from hydrogenated trimellitic acid anhydride (h-TAC) with various aromatic diamine monomers. They found that the thermal stabilities of these semi-aromatic PAIs are significantly affected by the sequence of the monomer addition, while those of the wholly aromatic PAIs are free from such polymerization conditions. Their work is now published in peer-reviewed journal, Reactive and Functional Polymers.

Synthesis of PAIs

N,N-Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) was purified by distillation under low pressure over calcium hydride. Triethyl amine (TEA) was distilled over potassium hydroxide before use. ODA, p-phenylene diamine (pPDA) and mPDA were purified by sublimation process. h-TAC, together with other chemicals, were used as received.  For T-D method, h-TAC was dissolved in DMAc, and a diamine monomer was added. TEA was then charged into the reaction mixture, and the stirring was kept continued for 2 h.  Finally, the polymerization was terminated with the addition of aniline. For chemical imidization, pyridine and acetic anhydride were added and the mixture was stirred at 85 oC for 5 hours. The reaction solution was then poured into methanol and the resulting precipitate was filtered and dried to become a polymer.

Semi aromatic PAI samples were prepared by the conventional low temperature solution polymerization of h-TAC with aromatic diamines in presence of TEA, followed by reaction with aniline and chemical imidization with pyridine/acetic anhydride. As the acidic monomers of h-TAC possess asymmetric structures, the addition sequence of monomers should significantly affect the monomer sequence in the polymeric structures.

Wholly aromatic PAI samples were prepared by the low-temperature solution polycondensation of TAC with aromatic diamine monomers, followed by chemical imidization, following the preparation of semi-aromatic PAIs. Monomer addition order is significant in determining the microstructure of the obtained polymers. Thermostabilities were evaluated and no large difference was noted between wholly aromatic PAI samples prepared between D-T and T-D processes.

However, these results do not match with those obtained for the semi-aromatic PAI samples. The researchers therefore concluded that monomer sequence order does significantly affect the polymer properties especially for semi-aromatic PAI samples. As the results, they cleared the effective polymerization methods to prepare highly transparent, colorless, and thermostable PAIs, which can be applicable for high temperature optical resins.

trimellitic acid
1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid
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      B0042 Trimellitic Acid >98.0%(HPLC)(T)
benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (Click)
IUPAC Name: benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid
Std.InChI: InChI=1S/C9H6O6/c10-7(11)4-1-2-5(8(12)13)6(3-4)9(14)15/h1-3H,(H,10,11)(H,12,13)(H,14,15)
InChI: InChI=1/C9H6O6/c10-7(11)4-1-2-5(8(12)13)6(3-4)9(14)15/h1-3H,(H,10,11)(H,12,13)(H,14,15)
CAS Number: 528-44-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 208-432-3
Nikkaji Web: J6.674E
Beilstein Number: 2214815
MDL: MFCD00002470
XlogP3: 0.30 (est)
Molecular Weight: 210.14202000
Formula: C9 H6 O6
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: monomer in epoxy resins for coatings
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 219.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 505.51 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 525.00 °F. TCC ( 273.60 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 1.240 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 21000 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50  2500 mg/kg
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 18(7), Pg. 57, 1974.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Category: monomer in epoxy resins for coatings
Recommendation for trimellitic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for trimellitic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives a 4th list of substances for food contact materials
View page or View pdf
Report of ESCO WG on non-plastic Food Contact Materials
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 528-44-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 10708
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid
Chemidplus: 0000528449
RTECS: DC1980000 for cas# 528-44-9
Potential Blenders and core components note
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
1,2,4-benzene tricarboxylic acid
 benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid
1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid
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